Einfluss der oralen Kontrazeptiva auf Parodontalerkrankungen bei Frauen

The impact of oral contraceptives on women's periodontal health and the subgingival occurrence of aggressive periodontopathogens and Candida species.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of oral contraceptive (OC) use on the subgingival occurrence of specific periodontopathogens and the host's periodontal status. Materials and Methods: Ninety-two women aged 19 to 40-years-old were included in the study.

They were divided in OC users and non-users and sub-grouped according to the most severe periodontal condition and the duration of OC usage. A pooled subgingival sample from each subject was cultured to investigate the presence of Candida species, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia. Results: OC users, particularly smokers, showed a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of severe periodontitis. OC users had deeper probing depths and higher gingival index scores >/=2 and clinical attachment loss >/=5 mm than non-users (P <0.01). Patients on OCs had significantly higher numbers of cultures positive for Candida.

Seven Candida species were isolated. Subgingival Candida was associated with P. gingivalis and P. intermedia in 82.9% and 85.4%, respectively, in patients taking OCs. A. actinomycetemcomitans was isolated in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis and was associated with subgingival P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and Candida. Conclusions: OC use may increase the risk of severe periodontitis and seems to cause a selection of certain Candida species in periodontal pockets. OC users showed a higher prevalence of P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and A. actinomycetemcomitans compared to non-users. C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata were the species with the ability to survive in the conditions created by the sex hormones after 3 years.

Brusca MI, Rosa A, Albaina O, Moragues MD, Verdugo F, Pontón J (J Periodontol. 2010 Apr 6)